Jain Philosophy – One of the religious traditions that originated in the Indian subcontinent is known by its proper name, Jainism. Jainism’s teachings, according to its own traditions, are eternal and do not have a founder; However, Mahavira, a teacher from the sixth century BCE who was a contemporary of the Buddha, is the source of the Jainism of this era. Mahavira’s teachings, like those of the Buddha, were formulated in response to and rejection of Brahmanism, which was a religion based on the Hindu scriptures, the Vedas and Upanisads, at the time. The brahmans propagated the idea of reincarnation guided by karma, or merit brought about by actions’ moral qualities, as well as the caste-based division of society. Orthodox darsanas were their schools of thought because they respected the authority of the Vedas and Upanisads. The word “darsanas” literally translates to “views.” Because they taught that the Vedas and Upanisads, and thus the brahman caste, lacked authority, Jainism, Buddhism, and a materialist school known as Carvaka were referred to as the unorthodox darsanas.